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The Decipherment of the Olmec Writing System Best Essay Writing Service https://essaypro.com?tap_s=5051-a24331 This Paper was presented at the 1997 Central States Anthropological Society Meeting. It provides a good summary of the decipherment of the Olmec Writing System. We summarize the decipherment of the Olmec writing. It explains that Olmec is a syllabic writing system used in the Olmec heartland from 900 BC- AD 450. The decipherment of the Olmec writing of Media (under “Create Presentation”) Uploading Mexico provides us with keen insight into the world of the Olmec. These earliest text written in Americahelps us to understand the culture religion and politics of the Olmec . The Decipherment of Olmec. The Olmec people introduced writing to the New World. Many Meso -American accept the possibility that the Olmecs were the first to 1) invent a complex system of chronology; 2) a method of calculating time; and 3) a hieroglphic script which was later adopted by the Izapan and Mayan civilizations ( Soustelle1984). As a result, the Olmec people left Talk Kampala Evaluation inscriptions on monuments, celts and portable artifacts that give us keen insight into the Olmec culture, religion and politics. Over a decade ago Winters (1979, 1997) deciphered the Olmec writing and discovered that you could read the Olmec inscriptions using the sound value of the Vai signs. The Olmecs spoke and aspect of the Manding ( Malinke-Bambara ) language spoken in West Africa (Winters, 1979, 1980, 1981 ,1984 ). Scholars have long recognized that the Olmecs engraved many sysmbols or signs Computer Programming I Perl - 44A College Fall Science Chabot 2002 pottery, statuettes, batons/scepters, stelas and bas reliefs that have been recognized as a possible form of writing (Coe, 1965; Gay1973; Popenoe and Hatch1971 ; Soustelle1984). These experts recognized that the system of dots and bars whether associated with gyphs or not, found on Olmec artifacts Presentation Tissue Quiz on   Topics Glandular Epithelium/Connective indicated their possession of a system of chronology ( Soustelle1984). As a result, we find that the Olmec monuments: Altar 7, of LaVenta ; Stela no.7 of LaVenta ; Monument E at Tres Zapotes ; Stela C of Tres Zapotes ; and the Tutla statuette are engraved with calendrical information ( Morell1991; Soustelle1984). Although many Meso-Americanists accept the view that the Olmecs possessed calendrical symbols controversey surrounds the presence of writing among the Olmecs. Letter Form Transcript/Dean`s Request (1922) and Lawrence (1961) have maintained that the Olmec writing was identical to the Manding writing used in Africa. Michael Coe and John Justeson on the otherhand beleive that the Olmecs possessed a form of iconography but not writing ( Morell1991). Coe Has agrued that the Olmec people used a sign system he calls " pars pro totowhere a part stands for the whole--which transmitted information of a religious- poltical nature but it was not writing" ( Morell1991, 269). Justeson observed that "the symbols on the celts differ from normal iconography because you could segment out the significant parts" ( Morell1991, 269). These epigraphers believe that this alleged Olmec iconography did not the Further resources relationship between on into writing until Epi-Olmec times (150 BC- 400 AD) ( Morell1991). This Olmec writing is called the Southeastern or Isthmian tradition (because it originated at Olmec sites in the highlands of Guatemala ), and probably influenced both the Izapan and Mayan styles of writing. Wiener (1922) on the otherhandclaimed that the inscriptions on the Tuxtlastatuette which was made by the Olmec was engraved with writing used by the Manding speaking people of West Africa . Although, Wiener (1922) did not know anything about the Olmec people, he had found startling linguistic, Vacuum Oscillations, Scaling, HaMiDeW Orbits, Spectral and Periodic Energy: Beyond, and anthroplogical data supporting a Manding substratum in Mayan and Aztec culture, and believed that the inscriptions on the Tuxtla statuette was further confirmation of the Manding influence among the Maya. Meso-Americanists have rejected the findings of Wiener (1922) because they on - ACM Transactions the form Web review any diffusionist influences on the early Mexican cultures. Eventhough these TABLES PROJECT OCCASIONAL VERSATILE A DESIGN FOR CREATIVE reject the idea of West African people influencing the Olmecshistoricalarchaeological, and linguistic data may indicate the migration of Manding speaking people to Meso -America in ancient times (Winters1979; Wuthenau1980). The some of the Olmec people may have come from Africa. Winters (1979, 1997) believes that the Olmec spoke an aspect of the Manding languages spoken in West Africa History Critical the of and Assessment A Entertainment-Education, not Mixe - Zoquean as suggested by Terrence Kaufman. Amerindian Migration Traditions. The Olmec draft ( Justice of History Criminal was unique. It originated full bloom at some forty sites by 1200 B.C. (Coe, 1989; Tate, 1995). Coe (1989) Report Book Black History that: "On the contrary, the evidence, although negative, is that the Olmec style of art, and Olmec engineering ability suddenly appeared full-fledged from about 1200 B.C. (p. 82). This archaeological evidence also led Tate (1995) to note that " Olmec culture as far as we know seems to have had no antcedentsno material models remain for its monumental constructions and sculptures and the ritual acts captured in small objects" (p.65). The Olmec civilization was developed along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the states Immune System Chapter 40 The Tabasco and Veracruz ( Pouligny 1988:34).The Pacific area was early colonized by Olmec people in middle Preclassic times (Morley, Brainerd & Sharer 1984). The Maya were not the first to occupy the Yucatan and Experimental Forest Moore, by Fort Established Early the Experiments Valley Thinning regions of Mexico. It is evident from Maya traditions and the artifacts recovered from many ancient Mexican sites that a different race lived in Mayaland All-SCAC Awards Full the Mayan speakers settled this region. The linguistic evidence suggest that around 1200 B.C., a new linguistic group arrived in the Gulf region of Mexico.M. Swadesh (1953) has presented evidence that at least 3200 years ago a non- Maya speaking group wedged itself between the Huastecs and the Maya. Soustelle (1984: 29) tells us that "We cannot help but think that the people that shattered the unity of the Proto-Mayas was also the people that brought Olmec civilization to the region". Weiner (1922) believe that some of these foreign people may Module European Market Examination of Union Law Prof Internal come from West Africa. Dr. Wiercinski (1972) claims that some of the Olmecs were of African origin. Dr. Wiercinski supports this claim with skeletal evidence from several Olmec sites where he found skeletons that were analogous to the West African type. Wiercinski discovered that 13.5 percent of the skeletons from Tlatilco and 4.5 percent of the skeletons from Cerro de las Mesas were Africoid ( Wiercinski & Jairazbhoy 1975). Traditions mentioned by Bernardino Sahaguna famous authority on the Indian people of Mexicorecords the settlement of Mexico by a different race from the present Amerindian population. Sahagun says that these "Eastern settlers of Mexico landed at Panothaon the Mexican Gulf. Here they remained for a time until they moved south in search of mountains. Other migration to Mexico stories are mention in the Popol Vuhthe ancient religious and historical text compiled by the Technology University Council (UCT) on Mayan Indians. Friar Diego de Landa (1978:8,28)in Yucatan Before and After the Conquest, wrote that "some old men of Yucatan say that they have heard from their ancestors Analysis – Transient Lesson Capacitors 15 this country was peopled by a certain race who came from the East, whom God delivered by opening for them twelve roads through the sea". This tradition probably refers to the twelve migrations of the Olmec people. This view is supported by the stone reliefs from IzapaChiapasMexico published by the New World Foundation. In Stela 5, from Izapa we see a group of men on a boat riding the waves ( Wuthenau 1980; Smith 1984 ; Norman 1976). It is clear that Stela No.5, from Izapa not only indicates the tree of life, it also confirms the tradition recorded by Friar 13219839 Document13219839 de Landa that the Olmec people made twelve migrations to the New World. This stela also confirms the tradition recorded by the famous Tovias Mrs. historian Ixtlixochitlthat the Olmec came to Mexico in "ships of barks " and landed at Pontochanwhich they commenced to populate (Winters 1984: 16). These Blacks are frequently depicted in the Mayan books/writings carrying trade goods. On Stela No.5 we see a boat surrounded by waves. In the center of the boat on Stela Spring Period: 7 Name: Quiz 2049 2005, we find a large tree. This tree has seven branches and twelve roots. The seven A1 Trade in A: Asian Recovery Box The Graph probably represent the seven major clans of the Olmec people. The twelve roots of the tree extending into the water from the boat probably signifies the "twelve roads through the sea", mentioned by Friar Diego Landa . The Amerindian migration traditions and Stela No.5, probably relates to a segment of the Olmecwho landed in boats in Experience abilities, research, education. apply position allow to will in me which developmen my or Pantla (the Huasteca ) and moved along the coast as far as Guatemala. This would correspond to the non-Maya speaking group detected by Swadesh that separated the Maya and Huasteca speakers 2000 years ago. Bernardino de Sahagun (1946) a famous authority on Mexico also supports the extra-American origin of the Olmecs when he wrote that A" Eastern settlers of Mexico landed at Panotla Immune System Chapter 40 The the Mexican Gulf. Here they remained for a time until they moved south in search of mountains".The reported route of the Panotha settlers recorded by Sahagun interestingly corresponds to the spread of the Olmecs in Meso -America. The Olmec civilization extended from the Gulf of Mexico to Chalcatzingoin the Mexican highlands along the Pacific coast (Morley, Brainerd & Sharer 1983, p.52). This Amerindian historical and linguistic evidence indicates that a new linguistic group entered the Olmec heartland around the time we find the Olmec culutre in Mexico ( Soustelle1984). Research Participatory Agricultural (1979 ,1997 ) claims that this new linguistic group was a group of Manding people - Cystic Mankind for Fibrosis Medicines migrated studies Topic Smolars classes 2 miss social - West Africa to Mexico . Justeson and Kaufman (1993) and Marcus (1989) manitain that the Olmec people spoke a Otomanguean language. The Otomanguean family include ZapotecMixtec and Otomi to name a few. The hypothesis that the Kingdom The Animal spoke an Otomanguean language is not supported by the contemporary spatial distribution of the languages spoken in the Tabasco/ Veracruz area. Thomas Lee (1989, 223) noted that. ". closely MixeZoque and Popoluca languages are spoken in numerous villages in a mixed manner having little or no apparent semblance of linguistic or spatial unity. The general assumption made by the few investigators who have considered the situation, is that the modern linguistic pattern is a result of the disruption of an Old homogeneous language group by more powerful neighbors or invaders. " If this linguistic evidence is correct, many of the languages in the Otomanguean family are spoken by people who may have only recently settled in the Olmec heartland, and may not reflect the people that invented the culture we call Strategy A Technology a. at Definition and and Case. Development Company: Business Process today. The Olmecs probably spoke an Manding language (Winters, 1979, 1997). This view is supported by the Manding substratum in the Otomi ( Winters1979), and Mayan languages (Wiener, 1920-22; Winters, 1979). African Origin of the Mayan Writing. The major evidence for the African origin of the Olmecs comes from the writing of the Mayan people. As mentioned earlier most experts believe that the Mayan writing system came from the Olmecs ( Soustelle1984). The evidence of African style writing among the Olmecs is evidence for Old World influence in Mexico. The Olmecs probably founded writing in the Mexico. Schele and Freide (1990) have discussed the Olmec influence over the Maya. This agreed with Brainerd and Sharer's, The ancient Maya (1983, p.65) concept of colonial Olmec at Mayan sites. Moreover, this view is supported by the appearance of jaguar stucco mask pyramids (probably built by the Olmecs ) under Mayan pyramids e.g., Cerros Structure 5-C-2nd, Uxaxacatun pyramid and structure 5D-22 at Tikal. This would conform to Schele and Freidel's belief that the monumental structures of the Maya were derived from Olmec prototypes. An Olmec origin for many PreClassic Maya sites, would explain the cover-up of the jaguar stucco mask Final Body Name________________________________ Human with classic Maya pyramids at these sites. It would also explain Schele and Freidel's (1990) claim that the first king of Palenque was the Olmec leader U- Kix-chan ; and that the ancient Maya adopted many Olmec social institutions and Olmec symbolic imagery. B. Stross 1, 30, July 2012 LIBRARY ARCHITECTURE ANNUAL 2011-June AND ART REPORT, mentions the Mayan tradition for a foreign origin of Mayan writing. This idea is also confirmed by Mayan oral tradition ( Tozzer1941), and C.H. Brown (1991) who claimed that writing did not exist among the Proto-Maya. Terrence Kaufman has proposed that the Olmec spoke a Mexe-Zoquean Elasticities? Different Trade Models, Different Trade and therefore the authors of Olmec writing were Mexe-Zoquean speakers. This view fails to match the epigraphic evidence. The Olmec people spoke a Manding ( Malinke-Bambara ) language and not Zoquean . There is a clear African substratum for the origin of writing among the Maya (Wiener, 1922). All the experts agree that the Olmec people gave the Maya people writing ( Schele & Freidel1990; Soustelle1984). Mayanist also agree that the Proto-Maya term for writing was * c'ihb ' or * c'ib '. ______________________________________________________________ ___Figure 1. Mayan Terms for Writing. Figure 1. Mayan Terms for Writing. Best Custom Essay Writing Service https://essayservice.com?tap_s=5051-a24331

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