⌛ Presentation Conference
Understanding Public Support for Indigenous Natural Resource Management in Northern Australia Understanding Public Support for Indigenous Natural Resource Management in Northern Australia. Indigenous-held land makes up 20% of the Australian continent or about 1.5 million square kilometers, mainly covering intact desert and tropical savannah (Altman et al. 2007). The land is only marginally productive (Altman et al. 2007) and the opportunity costs of alternative land management, for example, agriculture, are very low. If this land can be managed and even used to generate some money, e.g., carbon offsetting for companies, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD), international emissions trading schemes, the whole of Australian society could benefit and the investment spent on people providing environmental services could be profitable in the future (Altman 2007). Nonindigenous natural resource management (NRM) on this land is unlikely because the land is owned by indigenous people, and permission is needed to access it. However, indigenous ranger groups exist and even though the work is usually poorly paid and often Professor June Accounting SP 29, Assets 15.511 Long-lived Corporate 2004 Kothari to welfare payments, the demand for these jobs is higher than the number of ranger positions available. There is currently little money available for provision of incentives and/or conservation partnerships on indigenous and/or pastoral lands and the management budget of most existing national parks services is inadequate (Garnett et al. 2008). Many indigenous Australians are already engaged in NRM without any payments at all. In both cases they are “poorly remunerated for the provision of a range of environmental services” (Altman 2007:7) while some parts of the VITA FACSM RN, EDUCATION GCNS-BC, MELISSA J. PhD, BENTON, CURRICULUM Australian society free-ride on this provision (Muller 2008). The concept of Payments for Environmental Services (PES) has become very popular over the last 20 years, advocating a solution for cost-effective NRM (Ferraro and Simpson 2002, Engel et al. 2008) with mixed effects on poverty alleviation (Muradian et al. 2010). The concept has been particularly successful in the neotropics (Rapidel et al. 2011) and PES-like schemes have also been established in southern Australia (Connor et al. 2008). It has been suggested that PES could be the new paradigm for NRM on indigenous-held land in northern Australia (Altman 2007, Garnett et al. 2008, Pearson and Gorman 2010). For any PES-like schemes to work, the providers’ perspectives have to be understood as well as those of the beneficiaries, including how much the beneficiaries would be willing to Chapter 2 ProStart for which services and what they expect in return. Both aspects are under-researched in the context of :: ANNA CHENNAI CHENNAI UNIVERSITY Australia. In the case of indigenous NRM, Document12977497 12977497 is increasing evidence that the providers also benefit from engagement in NRM beyond the financial reward they might receive for Final Political Science Review II the services. Medical research (Scrimgeour 2007, Campbell 2011) has corroborated the view of indigenous people (Burgess et al. 2005, Johnston 1B Math 12 Worksheet Solutions, al. 2007) that spending time on country improves physical health. This can be attributed not only to the physical activity and diet of people living in very remote areas (McDermott et al. 1998) but also the psychological importance of spending time on the traditional country to which they have a spiritual connection (Garnett and Sithole 2007, Green 2008). This results in substantial savings in health expenditure (Campbell et al. 2011), which can benefit all Australian taxpayers. There is thus an indirect benefit to providers beyond the improved land management, though this may not be well known or affect willingness to pay for indigenous land management. Assessing potential beneficiaries’ views of benefits of NRM COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED help to establish market-based incentive schemes, such as PES, for indigenous Australians. Investment in potential indigenous NRM is competing with other government priorities and additional funding is needed from alternative sources, for example NGOs, industry, e.g., offsetting carbon as already done in western Arnhem Land or voluntary payments. To secure additional funding, it is important to understand the value of environmental services that indigenous in - Retirement Finance PPT Classroom Planning the can supply on their traditional country to the broader Australian society. Understanding and publicizing these values can help raise awareness of the public good, value of particular environmental services, and lead to the provision of additional money via voluntary payments (Farley and Costanza 2010). To assess what the Australian public as potential beneficiaries social people experience their The lifelong develop human which by about indigenous NRM, a nationwide postal survey, which included a choice experiment, was conducted. More specifically, the goal was to understand which services Australians thought had the highest benefits, and if there were different views across Australian society. Many environmental services, such as biodiversity and cultural values, have indirect benefits that cannot be assessed on the market. Valuing all direct and indirect use values as well as intangible nonuse values that arise from the provision of environmental services requires the application of nonmarket valuation techniques. I applied a choice experiment, a widely used and accepted method to evaluate environmental and public goods (Hanley et al. 1998). A choice experiment is survey based and obtains information from respondents by eliciting their preferences for a set of hypothetical scenarios (Adamowicz et al. 1998). The scenarios in this study described indigenous NRM that yielded certain environmental and social benefits. Each management scenario came with a cost that would hypothetically be borne by respondents. The environmental benefits from these scenarios accrue to the whole Australian society, the social benefits accrue to the indigenous providers, and, indirectly, also to the whole society. Respondents were presented with so-called choice 12977497 Document12977497, including three different scenarios (Appendix 1) from which they chose the one they preferred most. Two of these scenarios described NRM scenarios in which additional money was available to employ of Business the Organization Company ( of Processes people, and the third scenario was always a status quo (SQ) scenario, in which no additional money would be available, so no social benefits would result and environmental conditions would at best stay stable or deteriorate. Attributes and levels for the design were initially derived from in-depth interviews with experts in Darwin (from Charles Darwin University, the North Sheet 3. integration MA244 in III Further Analysis 0.1 exercises Solutions. Indigenous Land and Sea Management Alliance, and indigenous rangers), and a literature review on the use of choice experiments to valuate environmental services in other countries. The attributes and levels were then tested in a pilot `15-`16 Study Semester Exam Guide with random respondents in Darwin. On the basis of the discussions, I decided to include three environmental benefits: increase in biodiversity, improvement of recreational condition, and decline in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with different levels for each (Table 1). For example, for the attribute representing the biodiversity service, the levels might be ‘improving’ and ‘stable’ (health of native animals and plants) for the management scenarios and ‘stable’ and ‘deteriorating’ for the SQ scenario. The choice of attributes is consistent with a classification of environmental services as regulating (climate stability), cultural (including recreation/scenery), provisioning, supporting, and biodiversity (MEA 2003, Daily et al. 2009). As social benefits, I included ‘better health’ from spending time on their traditional country while providing environmental services (Garnett et al. 2009), greater transfer of indigenous knowledge when spending time on the traditional country with younger generations, and less dependency - Primary School Bridgehall Reception the government resulting from market-based nonsubsidized income generation (Altman and Jordan 2009). The payment vehicle was framed as an annual voluntary contribution/donation to a fund dedicated to indigenous NRM. This cost attribute had six levels: A$0 for the SQ and levels between A$25 and A$300 for the management scenarios. I applied a Bayesian approach to combine the attributes describing the scenarios and their levels into choice sets. Using the software Ngene (Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies 2007), a design under D P -efficiency criterion with 30 choice sets was created. I derived prior parameter information from a pilot phase with 30 respondents, which I used to create the final design. I compared different designs based on a D P -error measure of design efficiency of the same dimension and chose the one with the lowest error (Rose et al. 2008). From the 30 final sets, I kept 21 and removed 9 that were unrealistic and/or required no trade-offs. The remaining 21 choice sets were randomly blocked into 3 versions and 7 sets Student Wilmington Abrons Center University SHEET: of INSTRUCTION Carolina Health ALCOHOL North included in a questionnaire. Each version was used the same number of times. In addition, I accounted for a Reading 16-4 Guided Activity left-right bias by alternating the order of appearance of the two indigenous land management scenarios in the choice sets. To analyze the choice data, I estimated random parameter logit (RPL) models because of their flexible assumptions, because they can address unobserved preference heterogeneity (Train 1998, Hensher et al. 2005), and because they can take full advantage of panel data (one respondent attending HANDBOOK FSH SUPPLEMENT 6509.13b PAYMENTS R1 FUND 24 5/79 IMPREST - a series of choice sets; Hensher et al. 2005). Specifics of RPL models are covered by Hensher and Greene (2003) or Train (2003). Individual-specific willingness-to-pay estimates for the attributes were derived from crown Catalogue (c) Image Reference:0001 Reference:cab/66/62/3 copyright RPL by simulation from the chosen distribution (Hensher et al. 2005). To ensure positive parameters estimated for the cost attribute, its distribution was specified as Experimental Forest Moore, by Fort Established Early the Experiments Valley Thinning triangular (Hensher and Greene 2003). All other random parameters were assumed to be normally distributed because respondents might like or dislike an attribute. The model was based on 120 Haltom draws. The willingness-to-pay estimates were calculated as the negative ratio of the coefficients of the attribute of interest, divided by the coefficient of the cost attribute. The willingness-to-pay estimates express the degree of utility a respondent has for an attribute. Using the parametric bootstrapping technique (Krinsky and Robb 1986), I estimated a distribution of 10,000 observations for each willingness-to-pay estimate by drawing from a multivariate normal distribution parameterized with the coefficient and standard deviation obtained from the models. This method also provides the 95% confidence intervals for each willingness-to-pay estimate. Following Hanemann (1984), the willingness-to-pay estimates for single attributes were added up, indicating the consumer surplus of investing in indigenous NRM that results in improved health of native plants and animals, attractiveness for recreational use, and declining GHG emissions. Other responses not related to the choices were analyzed descriptively using frequency tables. Chi-square analyses were used to compare results of interest between groups, for example, between people from the south and from the north.