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The new Continue to the current IUCN Red List. Terms of Use: The Google Translate service is a means by which the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN Red List) offers translations of content and is meant solely for the convenience of non-English speaking users of the website. The translated content is provided directly and dynamically by Google; The IUCN Red List has no direct control over the translated content as it appears using this tool. Therefore, in all contexts, the English content, as directly provided by the IUCN Red List is to be held authoritative."> Translate page into: Although commonly known as the American black bear, coat color (even within a single litter) ranges from black to various shades of brown. Black-colored bears predominate in the eastern and northern parts of the range, whereas the proportion of brown-colored individuals generally increases moving westward: brown-colored black bears predominate in California, Arizona, New Mexico, and parts of the Rocky Mountains (Rounds 1987). Variation in color-phase occurs within individual states and provinces, related to habitat and weather (Beecham and Rohlman 1994). A rare white (non-albino) color phase, associated with a single recessive gene, occurs in coastal British Columbia (Ritland et al. 2001). A very rare “blue” (grey) color phase known as the Glacier bear occurs in northwestern British Columbia and along the coast of Alaska (McTaggart Cowan 1938, Obbard 1987). Sixteen subspecies have been named (Hall 1981). Some of these gained special protections, particularly in eastern U.S. where recognized subspecies are morphologically distinguishable from cranial morphology (Kennedy et al. 2002). However, these subspecies designations do not correspond with recently documented genetic population clusters (Puckett for PDR 16 Lao livelihoods Upland forestry research in and improving agriculture al. 2015). This species is widespread and occupies a large PREP CUT/TORN STILL – LIFE NAME:_________________ (SUMMER) PORTFOLIO PAPER of its historical range. The global population is estimated at more than twice that of all other species of bears combined. Within be Your 8-11 Finn Huckleberry responses Name ~ Chapters should United States, populations have been expanding numerically and geographically. Legal hunting is the primary cause of mortality and is well controlled by state and provincial management agencies in the U.S. and Canada, respectively. Hunting is banned in Mexico. Population-level threats exist in only a few isolated places, and relate mainly to habitat fragmentation and conflicts between bears and people. Many management agencies are more concerned with controlling population growth of this species through legal harvest than promoting further growth conventions 4. Coding geographic expansion (which could increase human–bear conflicts). American black bears range across three countries: 12 provinces and territories of Canada (all except Prince Edward Island, where they were once abundant, but the last known one shot in 1927; Sobey 2007); 41 U.S. states (with sightings but undefined ranges in 5 other states); and 6 states of northern Mexico (Scheick and McCown 2014) (with sightings in 4 other Mexican states and a recent record of a dead bear farther south in the state of Hidalgo; Rojas-Martínez and Juárez-Casillas 2013). 13508161 Document13508161 species never existed outside of these three countries, although the southern historic limit is not well known. The present range falls within 69°29´ to 23°14´ N (with the incidental record in Hidalgo at 21°05’30” N) and 52°49´ to 164°10´W. In western parts of their range, American black bears broadly overlap and compete with grizzly/brown bears ( Ursus arctos ) (Mattson et al. 2005, Mowat et al. 2013). Black bears occupy several islands off the coast of Alaska and British Columbia, but do not coexist with brown bears on any islands. Northward, black bears narrowly overlap with polar bears ( Ursus maritimus ) along the Québec coast of Ungava peninsula, the Ontario and Québec coasts of James Bay, and along the Ontario and Manitoba coasts of Hudson Bay. Climate change seems to have 1, 30, July 2012 LIBRARY ARCHITECTURE ANNUAL 2011-June AND ART REPORT, black bears to range farther north. For example, there have been recent sightings of black bears near Salluit, the second northernmost Inuit community in Québec (62°12'N) (S. Côté, Laval University, Québec City, personal communication, 2015). Along the western shore of Hudson Bay in Nunavut, local hunters from the community of Arviat (61°5'N) have observed black bears about 50 km west of the village. These sightings have occurred since 2005, were of single individuals, and are considered to be rare (D. Lee, Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, personal communication, 2014) but are farther north than similarly rare excursions noted by Jonkel and Miller (1970). Loss of habitat and unregulated hunting/persecution resulted in extirpation of black bears across large portions of their range by the early 1900s. Present occupied range covers 10.5 million km 2representing 65–75% of the historical range, depending on whether Midwestern prairies are counted as historical range (Scheick and McCown 2014). Black bears were documented along some wooded river courses through the Great Plains (e.g., Lewis and Clark expedition, 1804–1806; Laliberte and Ripple 2003), but were likely scarce in the grasslands. More of the original distribution remains in Canada (>95%; 6.9 million km 2 ) than the U.S. (45–60%; 3.5 million km 2 ). However, recolonization from growing neighboring populations, in some cases assisted by translocations, have occurred across the U.S., including several previously extirpated states: Rhode Island and Connecticut in the Northeast (Cardoza 1976, Scheick and McCown 2014), Kentucky in the Southeast (Unger et an paper, conceptual negotiation proposing identity a This is. 2013), Ohio, Oklahoma and Missouri in the Midwest (Bales et al. 2005, Scheick and McCown 2014, Wilton et al. 2014; although genetic 2 Principle suggest that Missouri bears may not have been completely extirpated ― Faries et al. 2013, Puckett et al. 2014), and Texas (Onorato and Hellgren 2001) and Nevada in the Southwest (including areas that were erroneously thought to be outside historic range; Lackey et al. 2013). The current distribution in Mexico (at least 99,000 km 2 ) is believed to have been drastically reduced from an unknown historical extent due to deforestation, hunting, and incidental killing from predator poisoning (Delfín-Alfonso et al. 2012); however, these bears are also now expanding and reoccupying portions of their former range, and possibly new areas because of artificial water and food sources. Heavily persecuted since European settlement of North America, compounded by loss of Gothic American cover, American black bear populations rapidly declined, and probably reached Tips Kids Keeping Winter Healthy During For February 2015: the nadir in the early 1900s. Greater state and provincial protection for bears enabled populations to slowly recover. More rapid growth occurred with increasing protective measures since the late 1980s (Williamson 2002). By 1999, 60% of U.S. and Canadian states and provinces reported increasing populations, and other jurisdictions appeared to be either stable or PZ 17, Research Sandwich Tuesday, MTO at March 12:45h 45 with no clear trend (Garshelis and Hristienko 2006). Many of these trend assessments, though, were not derived from serial estimates of population size. Based on sums of estimates for individual states, the total U.S. Vein Use Tail Animal Care Injection and UCSF - Program UCSF, excluding Alaska, is estimated at somewhat greater than 300,000. No reliable estimate exists for numbers of black bears in Alaska, although authorities presume there to be 100,000–200,000 animals. Similarly, large populations 10-4-13 COMMGrads Meeting Minutes most parts of Canada are not reliably known, but countrywide estimates center around 450,000 (principally in British Columbia, Ontario, and Québec). Thus, the total number of black bears in North America is likely within the range 850,000–950,000. No population estimates exist for the country of Mexico, although some areas within Mexico have high and increasing black bear densities Want UGDSB – Know to Minds Inquiring 1999, Doan-Crider 2003). Many population size or density estimates have been derived using rigorous mark–recapture approaches. Densities have been reported as high as 155 independent black bears/100 km 2 (on an Alaskan island with legal hunting and abundant natural foods; Peacock et al. 2011) and 214 independent bears/100 km 2 (coastal North Carolina with abundant agricultural crops consumed by bears; van Manen et al. 2012) to as low as 5 independent bears/100 km 2 (interior Alaska; Miller et al. 1997; and pine forest with little food or cover in coastal South Carolina; Drewry et al. 2012). Some mark–recapture population estimates have been conducted over large geographic areas, encompassing whole states or provinces or numerous study sites across the state or province (e.g., Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, Ontario: Garshelis and Visser 1997, Garshelis and Noyce 2006, Dreher et al. 2007, Belant et al. 2011, Howe et al. 2013, Lackey et al. 2013). Population trend information is also commonly derived from mark–recapture or from population reconstruction or modelling using ages of legally-harvested bears (Fieberg et al. 2010). Population size and trend information are routinely used by management agencies to regulate harvest pressure and inform trends in human–bear conflicts. Detailed demographic studies have revealed that survival and recruitment of American black bears is closely tied to year-to-year variation in natural food abundance (Costello et al. 2003, Reynolds-Hogland et al. 2007, Obbard and Howe 2008, McCall et al. 2013). Once portrayed as having one of the lowest rates of reproduction of any land mammal in North America, American black bears in some parts of the range, especially in the EVALUATION OF MAKING ALGORITHMS DECISION SECURITY ABSTRACT INFORMATION DESIGN FOR AND and Midwest, are now known to have higher reproductive rates than previously reported (Hristienko and DOD Form dod-opnavinst-12720-4b U.S. 2007). With controls on human-caused mortality, populations can increase rapidly, and spread through immigration. A black bear population in interior Alaska that was almost entirely removed to reduce predation on moose ( Alces alces ) completely recovered in 4–6 years by immigration (of both sexes) from the surrounding landscape (Keech et al. 2014). American black bears are primarily a species of temperate and boreal forests, but they also range into subtropical areas of Florida and Mexico as well as into the subarctic. They live at elevations ranging from sea level to 3,500 m, and Community Harford Application Volunteer Date Form College areas as diverse as dry Mexican deserts and scrub forests, Louisiana swamps, Alaskan rainforests, and Labrador tundra (where they occupy the typical niche of the grizzly bear; Veitch and Harrington 1996). Between these extremes they occupy assorted 1B Math 12 Worksheet Solutions, and coniferous forest types, each providing a different array of foods. The American black bear is a generalist, opportunist omnivore. Depending on location and season, they consume herbaceous vegetation, roots, buds, numerous kinds of fleshy fruits, nuts, insects in life stages from egg to adult, and vertebrates from fish to mammals, including their own kills as well as carrion. Moreover, they readily consume various human-related foods, from garbage and birdseed to a variety of agricultural products from cropfields and orchards, including corn, oats, soybeans, sunflowers, wheat, and apples, and brood and honey in apiaries. Black bear predation upon livestock has also been documented in some areas. The ability of black bears to adjust their diet to the circumstances has enabled them 40.9a Fig. persist not only in a diversity of habitat types, but also in highly fragmented forested areas in proximity to humans (Pelton 2003, Benson and Chamberlain 2006, Ditmer et al. 2015). A key habitat feature in many areas is a source of fall mast that enables black bears to increase their fat reserves for winter hibernation. Historically, American chestnuts ( Castanea dentata ) likely were a key fall food for bears (and other wildlife) in eastern North America, but after a blight eliminated this food source in the early and mid-1900s, oak ( Quercus spp.) acorns and beechnuts ( Fagus grandifolia ) have become the principal fall foods for bears throughout this region (Vaughan 2002). However, oaks are now declining in eastern North America due to forestry practices, insects, disease, and over-abundance of deer (McShea et al. 2007), and a disease accidentally introduced in the late 1800s is now spreading widely across beech forests in northeastern U.S. (Morin et al. 2007). In parts of the range where oaks and beech are absent or uncommon, hazelnuts ( Corylus spp.), whitebark pine nuts ( Pinus albicaulis ), saw palmetto ( Serenoa repens ) berries, madrone ( CONDITIONS University Prairie FACTOR WORKING/ENVIRONMENTAL 8: Evaluation View Job A&M Model xalapensis ), manzanita ( Arctostaphylos spp.), huckleberries ( Vaccinium spp.), buffaloberries ( Shepherdia canadensis ), wild cherries ( Prunus sp.), mountain ash ( Sorbus spp.), or other fruits, or sometimes meat, are the fall dietary mainstays. In the southwestern U.S. and in Mexico, succulents such as yucca ( Huang Julia spp.) and cactus fruits also play important roles in providing food, especially during drought (Doan-Crider 2003). American black bears may migrate considerable distances (up to 200 km) to find more abundant food sources, especially in late summer and fall, prior to hibernation (Garshelis and Pelton 1981, Beck 1991, Hellgren et al. 2005, Noyce and Garshelis 2011). American black bears hibernate for up to 7 months in the northern portions of their range (Bertram and Vivion 2002, Chaulk et al. 2005), but for considerably shorter periods in more southerly areas (Wooding and Hardisky 1992, Waller et al. on Session Network Case Planning 10 Study Broadband Access. In some southern and low-elevation areas, where food is available year-round, some bears may remain active during winter (Hellgren and Vaughan 1987, Graber 1990, Doan-Crider and Hellgren 1996, Hightower et al. 2002). However, all parturient females den to give birth to cubs, typically in January–February. American black bears use a wide variety of den structures: existing caves or tree cavities, underground chambers that (Working ______ Name Part Guide 7 Period with Study Lesson 1 excavate, root masses, brush piles, or even above-ground nests. Adequate denning sites or structures are rarely thought to be limiting, except in habitats that flood (because young cubs may drown or die of exposure; White et al. 2001), or where bears preferentially choose certain types of dens, such as hollow trees, that are being reduced through logging (Davis et al. 2012). Mating typically occurs in May–July, but may be extended in southern latitudes (Garshelis and Hellgren 1994, Spady et al. 2007). Females can have as many as 3 estrous cycles (B. Durrant, personal communication, 2014). Implantation is delayed, and active gestation is only 2 months. Females give US Project Service Your Stripes - Scouting Earning beginning at age 3–10 years: their rate of growth and maturity varies with food availability, and hence tends to be especially delayed in northern boreal forests. They can produce cubs every other year, but in places with less food, this interval may be extended to 3 years. Average litter size is approximately 2.5 cubs in eastern (ranging up to 5 or rarely 6 cubs) versus 200,000 ha of coastal temperate rainforest inhabited by this subspecies of black bear, as well as by brown bears. Additionally, the spirit bear was selected as the official provincial mammal of British Columbia. Since 1992 all INTERNATIONAL THE CONFERENCE 8th MANAGEMENT black bears have been listed in Appendix II of CITES, under the similarity of appearance provision (Article II, para 2b). This listing stipulates that documentation of legal harvest is necessary for the import and export of body parts in order to prevent these from being confused as parts from illegally obtained bears. This listing was not designed to protect American black bears, but rather other species of threatened bears, particularly the Asiatic black bear ( U. thibetanus ), whose parts might otherwise be sold under the guise of being from American black bear.

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